Dallas Chiropractors Best Practices
Benefits of Egg Yolk
A review of
Wei S, Duan S, Liu X, Wang H, Ding S, Chen Y, Xie J, Tian J, Yu N, Ge P, Zhang X, Chen X, Li Y, Meng Q. Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgYs) block the binding of multiple SARS-CoV-2 spike protein variants to human ACE2. Int Immunopharmacol. 2021 Jan;90:107172. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107172. Epub 2020 Nov 3. PMID: 33191178; PMCID: PMC7608017.
Reviewed by Dr. John Wertish
Summarized Review of Conclusions:
This study focuses on Egg Yolk Antibodies and their ability to be a neutralizing agent against the SARS-CoV-2. It investigates the neutralizing effect of anti-spike-S1 IgYs on the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, as well as its inhibitory effect on the binding of the coronavirus spike protein mutants to human ACE2. The Results show that the anti-Spike-S1 IgYs showed significant neutralizing postency against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, various spike protein mutants, and even SARS-CoV in vitro.
Quotes from the article:
“Therefore, neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein present the most promising approach against COVID-19. Besides, several neutralizing antibodies that target the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 have been isolated from convalescent patients .”
“Despite the advancements, the use of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of COIVD-19 faces a wide range of safety threats that are yet to be addressed . Besides, the high production cost and low yield might complicate the use of the neutralizing antibodies, especially in the developing world. Therefore, there is need to explore other strategies that might be more economically suitable and feasible in the fight against COVID-19 prevention and control.”
Introduction to the Research:
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a novel strain of coronaviruses, has rapidly spread and evolved since the end of 2019 . To date, SARS-CoV-2 accounts for more than 40 million infections and more than 1.1 million COVID-19 – related deaths worldwide.
In this study they purified anti-spike-S1 IgYs from hens that were immunized with the S1 domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and interrogated their ability to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus using Hela cells with overexpressed human ACE2. In addition, we used competition ELISA assays to validate the IgY’s competitive binding to various SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein mutants, as well as the SARS-CoV Spike protein.
DNA sequence encoding S1 of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein was codon-optimized and synthesized by GenScript USA, Inc Supplementary Materials. Each hen was injected (intramuscular) with 150 μg of the recombinant spike protein under the wings, once a week for 4 weeks, and then IgY was extracted, and the titer evaluated. Here, we adopted an improved extraction as described by Sock HweeTan , with slight modification for subsequent processing. We removed lipids and lipoproteins, and then precipitated the supernatant with a final concentration of 15% cold ethanol, instead of ammonium sulfate. The purity of the extracted IgYs was more than 80%, without the ammonium sulfate residue and the process took less than 2 hours. The blocking potency of IgYs on the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus was evaluated by luciferase-generated luminescence. We used a competition ELISA to evaluate the ability of the IgYs to inhibit binding of eight different coronavirus spike protein mutants (including seven SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and one SARS-CoV spike protein) to the human ACE2.
The results showed that the ELISA titer of IgYs reached 2 after the third booster. However, compared with the reported monoclonal antibodies, the IC50 value for the IgYs was relatively high. We associated this phenomenon with the fact that, like the other polyclonal antibodies, only about 10% of the IgYs specifically recognized SARS-CoV-2, and the proportion of IgYs with neutralizing activity was even lower. Whereas the IC50 for the polyclonal IgYs was high, theoretically, the IgYs should have multiple sites for the neutralizing activity.
As always with these reviews, these are my takeaways from the article and I encourage you to read the article in its entirety. The references used in this article by the authors of this article are listed here.
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