Dallas Chiropractor Best Practices

Research Commentary;

Reduce Risk of Chronic Disease!

Effects of Exercise and diet on chronic disease 

Part 2: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cancer

A review of

Christian K. Roberts and R. James Bernard, Effects of exercise and diet on chronic disease. J Appl Physiol.  98: 3-30, 2005

By Dr. Bryan Stephens

Reduce Risk of Chronic Disease!

Summarized Review Conclusions

This week I am focusing on the other three chronic diseases that the authors investigate.  The more I continued to look at the article, the more I find how simple the summarization can be.  I mentioned it last time and I will say it again with one change. A proper diet with regular moderate exercise will help not only prevent chronic disease but can help reverse the effects of a life ignoring our basic needs.  We must continue to eat better, move more, and manage our stress if we are to protect ourselves from the main killers in today’s society!

Before I go on, I want to address metabolic syndrome as it is a newly defined disease.  It involves insulin resistance or high insulin in the blood, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, and visceral (abdominal) obesity.  Insulin resistance is such a key factor that metabolic syndrome was even called “insulin resistance syndrome” by one of the studies.

As always, I will highlight the key points below to further illustrate how crucial our lifestyle habits are in preventing and reversing chronic disease.


“Lifestyle interventions have been highlighted by the Finnish and Diabetes Prevention Program trials, which unequivocally document that progression to diabetes in those with elevated fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance can be mitigated by exercise and diet and are superior to drug therapy”

Christian K. Roberts and R. James Bernard, Effects of exercise and diet on chronic disease. J Appl Physiol.  98: 3-30, 2005

Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, and Nathan DM. Reduction in the incidence of Type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346: 393–403, 2002.

Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hamalainen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Louheranta A, Rastas M, Salminen V, and Uusitupa M. Prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 344: 1343–1350, 2001.


“…low fitness predicted risk of metabolic syndrome as powerfully as conventional risk factors”

Carnethon MR, Gidding SS, Nehgme R, Sidney S, Jacobs DR Jr, and Liu K. Cardiorespiratory fitness in young adulthood and the development of cardiovascular disease risk factors. JAMA 290: 3092–3100, 2003.


“The metabolic syndrome…exhibits a prevalence at nearly 25% of the US adult population and epitomizes the integrative nature of modern chronic disease, given its endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular underpinnings.”

Christian K. Roberts and R. James Bernard, Effects of exercise and diet on chronic disease. J Appl Physiol.  98: 3-30, 2005


“Several forms of cancer are influenced by lifestyle factors, and cancers of the prostate, breast, and colon are significantly affected by exercise and diet.”

Christian K. Roberts and R. James Bernard, Effects of exercise and diet on chronic disease. J Appl Physiol.  98: 3-30, 2005


“Given that 55% of US adults do not engage in regular physical activity and 75% do not consume at least five fruits and vegetables a day (261), it is no surprise that chronic diseases are the most common cause of preventable death in the United States. The evidence is overwhelming that physical activity and diet can reduce the risk of developing numerous chronic diseases, including CAD, hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and several forms of cancer, and in many cases in fact reverse existing disease.”

Christian K. Roberts and R. James Bernard, Effects of exercise and diet on chronic disease. J Appl Physiol.  98: 3-30, 2005

Mokdad AH, Bowman BA, Ford ES, Vinicor F, Marks JS, and Koplan JP. The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. JAMA 286: 1195–1200, 2001


Introduction to the Research

We have all heard that diet and exercise are important.  This review set out to highlight the key aspects of diet and exercise in the medical literature and how it pertains to chronic diseases.  This becomes important as the main killers in western society are currently cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer.  Much research has been done on the benefits of lifestyle change in not only prevention of these diseases, but also the reversal of existing diseases.  They also took it a step further by suggesting the possible reasons how diet and exercise worked so efficiently.


Research Methodology

This article was written with the compilated results of 424 different sources ranging from epidemiological, prospective cohort, and intervention studies.


Research Findings

A proper diet with regular moderate exercise will not only help prevent chronic diseases such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer but can also aid in the reversal of these diseases.  I can’t say it enough.  Our health stems from moving more, eating better, and managing our stress!

The authors end with one final note.  The importance of modifying lifestyle for our children.  As children are moving less due to computers, tablets, phones, televisions, and video games, they are eating more saturated fat, refined sugar, fast food, soft drinks, and high calorie fruit juices.  This must change if they are to have a chance at living long, healthy lives!


Research References

As always with these reviews, these are my takeaways from the article and I encourage you to read the article in its entirety.  The references used in this article by the authors of this article are listed here.


Our Message

Our Doctors at our Lakewood location, near the corner of Mockingbird Ln. and Abrams Rd., want to help you know how to be healthy by making good choices on diet, movement and mental health. Our Best choices on diet and exercise create our Best Defense against Illness and pain. We are here to help you make the best choices!